Graduate Program

School Psychology

Degree Name

Specialist in School Psychology

Semester of Degree Completion


Thesis Director

Lyndsay Jenkins


Victimization is associated with several negative outcomes; however, social support has been identified as a potential moderator. Social support can come from different sources, including parents, teachers, classmates, close friends, and the school environment. This study compared the frequency of classmate and teacher social support among intermediate and middle school students and investigated the relationship among these three variables. Finally, grade level and sex differences were considered as factors that influence the interrelationship among social support, victimization, and social/emotional outcomes. Participants included 649 students from a rural Illinois school district. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of classmate and teacher support between intermediate and middle school students. Classmate support moderated the relationship between victimization and social/emotional outcomes, as measured by the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS). However, teacher support did not moderate the relationship between victimization and social/emotional outcomes. Interestingly, classmate support also moderated the relationship between female victims and social/emotional outcomes that were measured by the BESS scale. No further sex or grade level differences were found. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed, as well as directions for future research.