Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Semester of Degree Completion


Thesis Director

Edward O. Moll


Relationships between 10 species of the batagurine genera Batagur, Callagur, Kachuga, Hardella, and Morenia are discussed based on a cladistic analysis of 35 morphological characters. Ocadia sinensis (Emydidae: Batagurinae) was used as the outgroup species. Four cladograms were produced with a length of 59.0 steps and a 0.75 consistency index. In contrast with previous studies, Hardella and Morenia do not appear as a monophyletic clade. Instead, Hardella is included with the remaining ingroup taxa (exclusive of Morenia) based on five synapomorphies. The present genus Kachuga was determined to be paraphyletic, having excluded the present genera Batagur and Callagur. The pangshura subgroup of the genus (consisting of the smaller members of the genus – K. smithi, K. tecta, and K. tentoria) is distinguished by six synapomorphies and appears to be a sister group of the clade formed by an unresolved polychotomy including Batagur, Callagur, and the kachuga subgroup (consisting of the larger members of the genus --K. dhongoka, K. kachuga, and K. trivittata). Batagur and Callagur are included with the kachuga subgroup based on two synapomorphies. A possible taxonomic revision suggested is to elevate the pangshura group to generic rank and include Batagur, Callagur, and the remaining Kachugas as a separate genus Batagur.

Graduate Program


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Zoology Commons