Graduate Program

School Psychology

Degree Name

Specialist in School Psychology

Semester of Degree Completion

Spring 2022

Thesis Director

Margaret T. Floress

Thesis Committee Member

Anne M. Walk

Thesis Committee Member

Hao-Jan Luh


The present study examined whether 53 observers could use the Five in 20 Observation Tool to accurately identify teachers needing additional classroom management training. The Five in 20 Classroom Observation Tool includes 21, evidence-based classroom management strategies, critical to effective classroom management. Fifty-three observers were recruited to complete 42 (42 primary observers and 11 reliability observers), 20-minute observations using the Five in 20 Tool. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, 29 observers participated in the recalled format and 24 participated in the live version. There was a statistically significant difference between observers who indicated fewer, or lower quality evidence-based strategies were observed (i.e., Lower Quality Rating Score) and teachers needing additional training compared to observers who indicated more, or higher quality evidence-based strategies were observed (i.e., Higher Quality Rating Score) and teachers not needing additional training. Overall observer-recommendation alignment was low (68%) and school psychologists had a higher percentage of observer- recommendation alignment (80%) compared to non-school psychologists (44%). Finally, five of the 53 observers watched and coded a 20-minute video. Observers codes were compared to a key and Cohen’s Kappa calculations reflected moderate to substantial agreement between the five observers and the key. Future research and implications of these findings are discussed.