Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Semester of Degree Completion


Thesis Director

John D. (Jake) Emmett


This study compared caloric expenditure between three step aerobic dance routines (STEP) using the same arm movements; one without any upper body resistive exercise product (ARM), one with a 2 lb. Power Air Ball (BALL), and one with a Spri Tube (TUBE). Twenty-seven college aged females familiar with step aerobics volunteered to be subjects. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured using the Bruce protocol. A 55 minute video was followed for each of the STEP routines to control for arm and leg movement. The order of the STEP routines was randomly assigned. An Aerosport TEEM 100 gas analyzer calculated and recorded oxygen uptake (VO2), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure (KCAL), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) every 20 seconds. A Polar heart monitor stored heart rates (HR) every 30 seconds and a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained every five minutes. The mean VO2 (L/min) for ARM, BALL, and TUBE was 1.52, 1.61, and 1.50, respectively. The mean KCAL (kcals/min) for the ARM, BALL, and TUBE was 7.65, 8.05, and 7.53, respectively. The mean HR (bpm) for ARM, BALL, and TUBE was 159, 166, and 159, respectively. VO2, KCAL, and HR were significantly higher (p < .05) during BALL. The mean RPE was statistically higher (p < .05) with TUBE. The findings suggest that although BALL produced higher V02, KCAL, and HR, it was not perceived as more strenuous than the ARM or TUBE STEP routines.