In Canada collective bargaining is shaped by a tight statutory structure used to regulate almost every aspect

of of the union-manangement relationship. Such legislation closely regulates the formation of the collective

bargaining relationship, governs the conduct and timing of the bargaining process, places restrictions on economic

conflict, and may, in some cases, mandate certain terms of the collective agreement. The legislation confers broad

administrative powers on labour relations boards or tribunals, which play a major role in the application of the

legislation (Carter 1995). Labour tribunals regulate both management and union activity and may restrain some

forms of employer interference with union organizing and bargaining activity as well as the untimely use of

economic sanctions by trade unions.