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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Noelle C. Chubb

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2022


In 2014, the Crimean Peninsula was pseudo-legally annexed by the Russian Federation after months of internal turmoil (the “Euromaidan crisis”) that ousted then-President Viktor Yanukovych. This crisis, which began in November 2013, would turn into the most intense conflict in Eastern Europe since the Russian Federation was formed in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union. The annexation, along with the declaration of independence by the oblasts of Donetsk and Lugansk would see several non-state actors (notably the People’s Republic of Donetsk, the People’s Republic of Lugansk, and Cossack Separatists) rise in opposition to the pro-Western forces in Ukraine. The sum result is a complex, multiparty conflict essentially frozen in a ceasefire declared in 2015 as a result of the Minsk Protocol (II).

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