Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity Analysis of Soybean Rust Fungicides

Steven L. Daniel, Eastern Illinois University
G. L. Hartman, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
E. D. Wagner, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
M. J. Plewa, University of Illinois

The original publication is available at


The identification of soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora

pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow, in the southern United

States in November 2004 (Schneider et al. 2005 ), in the

Midwest in 2006 (Hartman et al. 2007 ), and elsewhere has

increased the concerns of the impact of the pathogen on US

soybean production (Miles et al. 2007 ). The rapid spread of

P. pachyrhizi and its potential to cause severe yield losses

makes this among the most destructive foliar diseases of

soybean. Yield losses of 20%–60% were reported in Asia,

with losses of 80% reported from experimental plots in

Taiwan (Hartman et al. 1991 ). Soybean rust could have a

major impact on both total soybean production and production

costs in the US.