On the basis of floral and vegetative morphology, 63 tropical American genera have been recognized within Maxillarieae. We were able to examine anatomical material of all subtribes, excluding Oncidiinae. Stegmata with conical silica bodies occur in leaves and stems of all subtribes excluding Ornithocephalinae, and pericyclic stegmata found in roots are characteristic of Lycastinae. Lycastinae and Maxillariinae are characterized by foliar glands, foliar fibre bundles and tilosomes. Endodermal cells are U-thickened in most Zygopetalinae; O-thickened in most Lycastinae, Ornithocephalinae and Telipogoninae; variously thickened in Maxillariinae; and thin-walled in Cryptarrhena lunata. Water-storage cells varied from thin-walled to variously banded throughout Maxillarieae. Cladistic analyses using anatomical characters yielded no resolution among subtribes, illustrating that anatomical characters are of limited value in assessing relationships within this tribe.
Stern, William Louis; Judd, Walter S.; and Carlsward, Barbara S., "Systematic and comparative anatomy of Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae), sans Oncidiinae" (2004). Faculty Research & Creative Activity. 261.