Specialist in School Psychology
Semester of Degree Completion
Margaret T. Floress
The current study examined teachers' natural use of praise and reprimand in middle and high school (sixth through twelfth grade) general education classrooms. In addition, the relations between praise and reprimand and teacher stress and self-efficacy were examined. Praise and reprimand data were collected via 20-minute, direct observation (940 total observation minutes). On average, middle and high school teachers delivered 11.7 total praises per hour and 10.4 total reprimands per hour (1.1 to 1 praise-to-reprimand ratio). Middle school teachers delivered 12.8 total praises per hour and 14.5 total reprimands per hour (0.9 to 1 praise-to-reprimand ratio) and high school teachers delivered 7.0 total praises per hour and 11.5 total reprimands per hour (1.4 to 1 praise-to-reprimand ratio). There was no statistically significant difference between middle and high school teachers' use of praise. Middle school teachers reprimanded more frequently than high school teachers did, and this difference was statistically significant. In terms of teacher stress and self-efficacy, teachers who reported higher levels of stress used more reprimands, and teachers who reported higher levels of self-efficacy used fewer reprimands. Lastly, teacher-reported stress was negatively correlated with teacher self-efficacy. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Hayn, Sara, "An Examination of Teachers' Natural Praise-to-Reprimand Ratios and Teachers' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Stress" (2018). Masters Theses. 3406.