Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Semester of Degree Completion



Bufo americanus (American toad) responds to LH-RF injections by releasing sperm into the cloaca. An ANOVA test (repeated measures) was used to determine that spermiation number and body size but not frequency of injection affected sperm density. The affects of body size on sperm density were that large toads produced the highest sperm densities, followed by the medium and then the small toads. Sperm density decreased with repeated spermiations which could correlate with the explosive breeding pattern of the American toad.

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