Graduate Program

School Psychology

Degree Name

Specialist in School Psychology

Semester of Degree Completion


Thesis Director

Lyndsay Jenkins


Researchers and school administrators have recognized the importance of peer bystanders in bullying situations, but there are very few studies that examine this phenomenon within Latané and Darley's (1970) bystander intervention model. The five sequential steps in this model include: notice the event, interpret the event as an emergency that requires assistance, accept responsibility for intervening, know how to intervene or provide help, and implement intervention. Nickerson, Aloe, Livingston, and Feeley (2014) created the Bystander Intervention in Bullying Survey based on Latané and Darley's model. Nickerson and colleagues and Jenkins and Nickerson (in press) have found evidence of reliability and validity for the Bystander Intervention in Bullying survey in high school and middle school samples. The current study was designed to examine evidence of reliability and validity of the Bystander Intervention in Bullying survey with an upper-elementary school sample, and the association between affective and cognitive empathy and engagement in each of the five bystander intervention steps. Results revealed that a five-factor structure is appropriate for the elementary-school version of this survey, but results showed lower than desired reliability estimates. The survey's associations with an established defender measure revealed convergent validity evidence. Results also showed that both affective and cognitive empathy were associated with steps of the bystander intervention model. Future directions and practical implications are discussed.