Graduate Program

School Psychology

Degree Name

Specialist in School Psychology

Semester of Degree Completion


Thesis Director

Gary L. Canivez


The present study investigated the factor structure of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scale-Teacher Form (ACES-T; DiPerna & Elliott, 2000) Academic Skills (AS) and Academic Enablers (AE) scales with a convenience sample. Analyses included item-based exploratory factor analyses (higher-order EFA with Schmid-Leiman transformation; Schmid & Leiman, 1957) for subjects with complete data (AS N = 433; AE N= 466), and omega reliability estimates (Reise, 2012). For the AS scales, EPA identified an oblique (correlated) three-factor model. A second-order EFA was completed along with a Schmid-Leiman transformation and found the majority of the apportioned variance was associated with the general Academic Skills dimension. These approximate bifactor results were used to estimate latent factor reliability (omega-hierarchical and omega-subscale) and indicated the second-order factor (AS) captured a large portion of true score variance while the subscales (Reading/Language Art, Mathematics, Critical Thinking) did not. For the AE scale, EFA identified an oblique (correlated) four-factor model. A second-order EFA and Schmid-Leiman transformation was completed. Results suggested an approximate bifactor model with the majority of the variance apportioned to a general Academic Enabler dimension. Latent factor reliability estimates (omega-hierarchical and omega-subscale) were also calculated and indicated the second-order factor (AE) captured a large portion of the true score variance while the subscales (Engagement, Motivation, Interpersonal Skills and Study Skills) did not. The AS and AE Total scores are the most reliable and valid when interpreting the ACES-T while the subscale scores do not possess enough true score variance to warrant interpretation.